Home

Impact of Russian Revolution PDF

The Russian Revolution was, first, a political revolution that overthrew the monarchy of Nicholas II and made the construction of a new governmental system a central problem of the revolution. At the begin-ning of the twentieth century Russia was the last major power of Europe in which the monarch was an autocrat, his power unlimited by laws o View: 952. This book explores the global impact of the Russian Revolution, arguably the most influential revolution of the modern age. It explores how the Revolution influenced political movements on the radical left and right across the world and asks whether the Russian Revolution remains relevant today. In part one, four leading historians. the changing of Russian government. TAKING NOTES 1894 1922 Revolution and Nationalism867 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES REVOLUTION Long-term social unrest in Russia exploded in revolution, and ushered in the first Communist government. The Communist Party controlled the Soviet Union until the country's breakup in 1991. • proletaria 2. The Bolshevik Revolution in Russia influenced the European policy in a critical way to the extent that the Great powers lost their balance in dealing with many other pivotal and dangerous issues. The preoccupations of the Great powers, especially Britain, focus on how to limit the Russian Revolution and how to weaken it

The Russian Revolution And Its Global Impact [PDF

  1. Russian Revolution Russia had been an absolute monarchy under the control of the tsar since 1547. A revolution in 1905, after Japan defeated Russia in a war, resulted in some political changes but kept the tsar in power. In 1917, during World War I, Russia experienced another political revolution which overthrew the monarchy
  2. Although the revolution was intended to be ―of the people,‖ it ended up being against them. Harrison's firsthand account is one of only a few that truly revealed the very different revolution of the people. Works Cited Figes, Orlando. Defeat in Victory. A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution, 1891-1924. London: Jonathan Cape, 1996.
  3. EFFECTS OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION EFFECT ONE: RUSSIA WITHDRAWS FROM WWI DATE: _____ EFFECT TWO: DEATH OF THE ROMANOVS DATE: _____ EFFECT THREE: CREATION OF THE SOVIET UNION DATE: _____ 23. Why did the Russians withdraw from World War I? Use DOCUMENT F to answer questions 24 and 25..
  4. gton and Indianapolis, 1997)
  5. d, here's a look at seven ways the Russian Revolution changed the world
  6. The Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution is dated to November 1917 (October 1917 on the Russian calendar), when Bolshevik Party forces took over the government offices in Petrograd. However, the problems that led toward revolution had been developing for generations. The revolution's consequences, too, were far-reaching—the Communist.
  7. In 1905, Nicholas had faced a major challenge when revolution had broken out in Russia. There had been three main causes of the revolution. Firstly, in 1904, Russia had gone to war with Japan. Most Russians had expected an easy victory, but in fact the Russian army and navy had experienced heavy defeats and thousands of lives had been lost

The Russian Revolution of 1917, was actually two revolutions, one in February, and one in October of 1917. At the time, Russia used a different calendar than we use today, so they call these revolutions the March Revolution and November Revolution because their calendar was thirteen days ahead of what is commonly used today The Russian Revolutions: The Impact and Limitations of Western Influence After the collapse of the Soviet Union, historians have again turned their attention to the birth of the first Communist state in hopes of understanding the place of the Soviet period in the longe Harry Hanak; The Impact of the Russian Revolution 1917-1967: The Influence of Bolshevism on the World outside Russia, International Affairs, Volume 44, Issue 2, We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website.By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies Russian Revolution: Czar/Lenin/Stalin Which heading best completes the outline below? (1) Causes of the Russo-Japanese War (2) Outcomes of the Congress of Vienna (3) Results of the Versailles Treaty (4) Effects of the Bolshevik Revolution _____ What was a major reason the Russian people engaged in the Revolution of 1905?. The Causes of the Russian Revolution. 1 The Causes of the Russian Revolution1 By Chris Wright The Russian Revolution is the sphinx of the twentieth century. Its historical meaning is unclear. Lenin and Trotsky interpreted the events of October 1917 and subsequent weeks as constituting an authentic proletarian revolution, a socialist revolution

The Russian Revolution of 1917 had many negative outcomes, but it also had some positive outcomes. One positive outcome is that the czarist rule comes to an end and gives say to the workers and peasants. This is also a negative effect because communism replaces czarist rule. After the revolution, Lenin created free education throughout Russia Unit Overview Context: This will be taught in 9th grade after WWI is discussed in the pervious unit, and before WWII. This will happen in approximately in mid January. Unit Goals and Objectives: Students will understand the causes and effects of the Russian Revolution. They will be able describe the events that together led up to the Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution of 1917 had an enormous impact on politics on a global scale for many decades. Nothing came close to it in importance - a fact recognised at the time and which continues to prove compelling a full century later

(PDF) The impact of the Bolshevik revolution 1917 in

Lenin and the Russian Revolution in 6 Minutes Videolivraison de la weed france bretagne andorre toulouse

The effects of the Russian Revolution of 1917 over Russia were as follows: (i) The Russian Revolution put an end to the autocratic Tsarist rule in Russia. (ii) It led to the establishment of world's first communist/socialist government. The new Soviet Government announced its withdrawal from the First World War Russia was declared a communist state this social and economic revolution got complete. Significance of the Russian Revolution. The success of the Bolshevik revolution (1917) transformed communism from theory into practice. It was the first communist revolution in the world. The popularity of communism in the world increased enormously Russian Revolution of 1905 . Russia industrialized much later than Western Europe and the United States. When it finally did, around the turn of the 20th century, it brought with it immense social. it a clear understanding of the Proletarian Revolution and the Dictatorship of the Proletariat.' Reed correctly stressed the importance of the turn of events in Russia, but he underestimated its eventual impact on world affairs. The upheaval in the Russian Empire shook the world not for ten days but for some seventy-four years History of Russia timeline • Volga Bulgaria 7th-13th c. • Kievan Rus 9th-12th c. • Novgorod Republic 12th -14th c. • Mongol Invasion 1220-1240's • Golden Horde 1240's -1480's • Muscovy 1340-1547 • Khanate of Kazan 1438-1552 • Tsardom of Russia 1547-1721 • Russian Empire 1721-191

(PDF) Digital Economy: Unemployment Risks and New

Popular Impact of the 1917 Bolshevik Revolutio

  1. the women who sought change in Russia through terrorism, education, and writing, this study demonstrates that the long-term impact of more violent acts often overshadowed more peaceful efforts for change. It also shows how these women--and their divergent approaches to revolution--intertwined
  2. Only the Bolsheviks, influenced by an ideology imported, paradoxically, from the West, interrupted this path of Russian political and economic Westernization. Others, in contrast, suggest that the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 developed squarely out of Russian traditions of invasive state practices, violent protest and repression, and autocratic.
  3. Russia, her economy, her classes, her State, in the action upon her of other states, we ought to be able to find the premises both of the February revolution and of the October revolution which replaced it. Since the greatest enigma is the fact that a backward country was the first to place the proletariat in power, it behoves us to seek the.

asymmetrical compositions. Most of these effects are achieved directly with the camera, not through the editing process. As a result, Man with a Movie Camera is hardly a straightforward documentary, but a self-referential, self-reflexive exploration 5 Russian and Soviet Cinema in the Age of Revolution, 1917 - 1932 4 David Garif The Russian Revolution and Its Global Impact Amiya Kumar Bagchi. 46 Social Scientist Vol 46 Nos 3-4 March-April 2018 tivities. On 20 December 1895 Lenin was arrested and kept in solitary con-finement for thirteen months and is then exiled to Siberia for three years first Russian Revolution occurred, direct evidence on a relationship between economic conditions and unrest is lacking. 8 Indeed, although conditions of economic crisis have been blamed for growing political radicalization, rural unrest, and labor strife, the pace o

Bestseller: Chapter 17 Section 4 Guided Reading The Impact

One hundred years on from the Russian Revolution , three main lessons emerge from the 75-year Great Soviet Experiment. They are not rocket science but worth re-stating. First, industrialisation. This paper assesses the impact that the Euromaidan revolution has had to date on Ukrainian society and politics. It argues that although the longevity of the incipient democratic transition is far from assured, the changes to date are unprecedented and profound. The post-revolutionary phase brings with it new opportunities and challenges The Russian revolution of 1905 began with the retreat of the Russian troops from Mukden. The February Revolution of 1917 sprang from a bread-riot caused by the breakdown of transport during the war. At first the riot seemed in no way different from similar riots that had taken place sporadically sinc

The Russian Revolution's Impact - Scholasti

What was the Russian Revolution? Emperor Nicholas II Image is courtesy of wikimedia commons and is in the public domain The Russian Revolution of 1917, was actually two revolutions, one in February, and one in October of 1917. At the time, Russia used a different calendar than we use today, so they call these revolutions the March Revolution and November Revolution because their calendar was. the Russian Revolution, so far as that responsibility concerns the international, and especially the German, proletariat, and to deny the international connections of this revolution. It is not Russia's unripeness which has been proved by the events of the war and the Russian Revolution, but th the Jewish population, a small but significant portion of the overall Russian population. Despite this, the impact of the Revolution on Russian Jews has yet to be fully investigated. While the initial euphoria of the Revolution caused the greatest expansion of civil rights for Jews since their arrival in Russia and muted anti-Semitic sentiment.

Dickinson College Dickinson Schola

  1. the Russian Revolution Matthew Rendle It is clear that the global impact of the Russian Revolution over the last century has been immense, particularly as a source of inspiration for social movements across the world. What is less clear, however, is the global impact on the revo - lution
  2. November 2017 marked the centenary of the Russian Revolution, an event that proved to be a turning point in the history of the world. 1 The revolution not only resulted in ending centuries of imperial rule in Russia but also set in motion political and social processes that led to the formation of the Soviet Union. Unlike other political revolutions that occurred in a single country and.
  3. istrative and educational co-ordination remained frail. Political parties had little impact on popular opinion, and the State Duma was to a large extent ignored
  4. 1991 and the Russian Revolution 385 similar trajectory was traced in other countries, but perhaps nowhere else were the effects so ramified, for nowhere else did perceptions of Russia constitute so inte-gral a part of the national fabric. That thousands of people in one country (th
  5. This book explores the global impact of the Russian Revolution, arguably the most influential revolution of the modern age. It explores how the Revolution influenced political movements on the radical Left and Right across the world and asks whether the Russian Revolution remains relevant today. In Part one, four leading historians debate whether or not the Russian Revolution's legacy.
  6. Though Russia still lagged far behind Western Europe, the growth of industry and the urban working class would play an enormous role in the Russian Revolution in the following century. Lesson Summar
  7. THE TSARIST EMPIRE • From 1914-1917, Russia took part in WWI: • It worsened the economic and political problems that the empire was already experiencing. • This caused more discontent and protests because Russian soldiers did not have enough food or military equipment. • This led to a revolution in 1917. 18

The industrial revolution came to Russia largely in the 1890s, with ironworks, factories, and the associated elements of industrial society. While the development was neither as advanced nor as swift as in a country like Britain, Russia's cities began to expand and large numbers of peasants moved to the cities to take up new jobs The 1917 Russian revolution had a great impact on South Asian political movements and leaders. DW talks to renowned Pakistani social activist and author Harris Khalique about its relevance today.

Indeed, Russia has established that, during critical moments, such as during the Ukrainian revolution, it can flood news websites with tens of thousands of comments each day. We then searched for examples of pro-Russia propaganda within Russian-language social media content, specifically Twitter. To do this The Age of Enlightenment. Unit 8: French Revolution and Napoleon. Unit 9: The Industrial Revolution. Unit 10: African Kingdoms & Imperialism. Unit 11: WWI & The Russian Revolution. Unit 12: The Years Between the Wars. Unit 13: World War II. Unit 14: The Cold War. Unit 15: Nationalism in Asia, Africa, & Latin America Post WWII The first was in 1905-06, and the second began in 1917. These revolts marked the end of Russia's Romanov dynasty. The Romanov line ruled Russia as czars from 1613-1917. The first revolt followed. substantial positive effects of the abolition of serfdom on agricultural productiv-ity, industrial development, and peasant nutrition in the nineteenth century Russian Empire. Our estimates imply that Russia's GDP increased by about 17.7percent as a result of the reform in the second half of the nineteenth century

Impact of the Russian Revolution 1917-1967: The Influence

One of the many sub-sourcebooks of this site deals specifically with the Russian Revolution. Russian Revolution, Civil War & USSR (1917-1991): These links to primary sources are a subset of the larger EuroDocs site. Many but not all of the documents and sites are in Russian. Soviet History/Marxist History/Marxist Internet Archive On March 8, 1917, Russia's February Revolution (so called because of the Old Style calendar used by Russians at the time) began with rioting and strikes in St. Petersburg

(PDF) The Causes of the Russian Revolution Chris Wright

The Eurasianist school of thought in Russia emphasises the Asian character of Russian development which began in the wake o f the Mongol conquest. However, the Bolshevik revolution, hardened in the fires of civil war, marked a historical departure from whatever Asian roots had survived, and created a new type of sovereignty - O ne hundred years after the Russian Revolution, historians are still arguing about what made this seismic political shift possible. For the most part, the crises, reversals, and surprises, along. The Russian Revolution of 1917-21: Part I. The Russian Revolution took place in 1917, during the final phase of World War I. It removed Russia from the war and brought about the transformation of the Russian Empire into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), replacing Russia's traditional monarchy with the world's first Communist state. selfstudyhistory.co The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the system of autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal Provisional Government (Duma), resulting in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. This eventually led to the establishment of the Soviet Union, which lasted until its dissolution in 1991 The impact of Western sanctions on Russia and how they can be made even more effective REPORT By Anders Åslund and Maria Snegovaya Dr. Maria Snegovaya is a non-resident fellow at the Eurasia Center, a visiting scholar with the Institute for European, Russian, and Eurasian Studies at the George Washington University; an

Giant Image Management - Diary of Silviamatrilineally

Outcomes/ Effects - Russian Revolutio

3. WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT THE RUSSIANREVOLUTION• Background - 1905 Revolution 1. There was a war between Russia and Japan (Russo-Japanese War). Japan won, and Russia looked weak 2. The Russian people demanded changes and started a revolution. Czar Nicholas satisfied the revolutionaries by creating a constitution with a parliament (DUMA)• By. What the October Revolution has given women, a 1920 Soviet poster. The Bolshevik revolution was motivated not just by economic equality but the dream of radical social changes. Soviet social reforms of the 1920s aimed to improve the lives of ordinary Russians, particularly women, peasants and industrial workers The February Revolution toppled the Russian monarchy and ushered in a brief era of mixed liberal and socialist governance, only to be superseded by the more radical October Revolution, which saw. There are a number of reports about the involvement of Chinese detachments in the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War.Chinese served as bodyguards of Bolshevik functionaries, served in the Cheka, and even formed complete regiments of the Red Army. It has been estimated that there were tens of thousands of Chinese troops in the Red Army, they were among the few groups of foreigners.

The Russian Revolution: How 1917 Shaped A Century

  1. Credit: Flickr CC BY-SA 2.0. A hundred years ago, the Russian Revolution changed economic and political configurations across the world. Through a series of articles, The Wire revisits the making.
  2. Americans Experience Russia Encountering the Enigma, 1917 to the Present more. by Beth Holmgren and Choi Chatterjee. Americans Experience Russia analyzes how American scholars, journalists, and artists envisioned, experienced, and interpreted Russia/the Soviet Union over the last century. While many histories of diplomatic, economic, and.
  3. The Russian Revolution of 1905 The Russian Revolution of 1917 profoundly affected the recent history of the world. Its impact has been felt in every corner of the globe. People, ideas, and events have all been touched by it. This thought-provoking book not only offers a short, clear narrative of what happened i
  4. The February Revolution. The Russian Revolution of 1917 centers around two primary events: the February Revolution and the October Revolution. The February Revolution, which removed Tsar Nicholas II from power, developed spontaneously out of a series of increasingly violent demonstrations and riots on the streets of Petrograd (present-day St. Petersburg), during a time when the tsar was away.
  5. The Russian Revolution was the result of unrest caused by the gross mismanagement of World War I. In early March, 1917, angry and hungry workers took to the streets of St Petersburg. When the czar.
  6. II. Russian Growth and Development from Emancipation to Revolution At the time of serf emancipation in 1861, Russia had just lost the expensive Crimean War, the economy was among the least developed in Europe, and the country was facing 2 See Mironov (2010) on Imperial Russia, Arroyo Abad (2009) on Latin America, Fenske (2012) and Nun
  7. THE FIRST RUSSIAN REVOLUTION - THE DECEMBRIST MOVEMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON RUSSIAN POLITICAL HISTORY ANIL ÇİÇEK* Summary Almost two centuries have passed since the Decembrist uprising, but it still continues to be a very important topic for historians, scholars, and researchers as it had dramatic repercussions in Russian

This interpretation was inspired by the recent Russian revolution, the Soviet revolutio n as some have called it to distinguish it from the Russian Revolution of 1917, 1 or the anti-Commu-nist revolution. But an examination of the connection between nationalism and political unrest i n this case led me to consider it in a wider historical. 2. The Revolution of 1905 The First Russian Revolution began on 9th January 1905, when over 140,000 factory workers marched towards the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to deliver a petition to the Czar, in which they asked for their hardships to be alleviated (Vvedensky, 1952, pp. 539-40). The workers made 17 demands, including Russia has also protected the incumbent industrial firms from competition through trade policy. Allen (2003, p. 31) discusses the use of tariffs to stimulate industrialization: Tariffs on most industrial goods were high from the 1880s to the First World War, and Russian prices exceeded world prices by a premium that remained.

Russian Revolution - Hta

Russian connection.24 The next major work that considered the impact of the Russian thought on the development of Nazi ideology, Walter Laqueur's Russia and Germany, came out in 1965. Laqueur sought to refocus historical analysis of Nazism's origins by illuminating the strands connecting White émigrés and early Nazis policies that favored the use of Russian. Officially, Russian was labeled the language of interethnic communication, but speaking Russian became an essential element of participating in Soviet society. Since language use is generally a zero-sum decision, promoting one central language inevitably led to a decline in use of competing nationa

which is a similarity between the russian revolution and

Russian Revolution [1917]: February & October Revolution

RUSSIA'S ANXIETIES ABOUT THE ARAB REVOLUTION By Stephen Blank Stephen Blank is a Professor at the Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, Carlisle Barracks, PA. The views expressed here do not necessarily represent those of the US Army, Defense Department, or the U.S. Government Promotion of Communism & Revolution; With Russia's example of succeeding in a communist system, many countries have been inspired and decided to follow their footsteps. China was a well-known example, with Mao adapting to the concept of communist from Stalin and Karl Marx, result in creating Maoism as well as transforming China into a communist. Impacts and consequences- Long term: The October revolution has made many changes to Russia, because of this revolution, the government and controlling party was taken over by the Bolsheviks, putting Russia in a communist state. As mentioned, this revolution pushed Russia out of World War One, ultimately conceding a lot of land to Germany- this. Ben I've got to do an essay on the Causes of the Russian Revolution of March 1917. Anne The Revolution of February - of March - was a popular uprising: so you're looking for the reasons. Richard Pipes' Russia under the Bolshevik Regime takes a different approach. This sequel to the Harvard historian's The Russian Revolution, completes the trilogy he began some twenty years ago with his Russia under the Old Regime. The book covers the period from the outbreak of the Civil War to the death of Lenin (1918-1924)

The Early Development of Russian Psychiatry Prior to the middle of the nineteenth century, psychiatry in Russia consisted of a few isolated practitioners at the helms of asylums in Moscow and St. Petersburg and of half-hearted attempts to introduce the study of insanity into the curricula of the empire's medical schools The Russian Revolution changed the world forever. Ninety-six years ago on Nov. 7, 1917, workers and peasants overthrew the capitalist government in Russia. Two million soldiers in the Russian army had died in World War I. Russia was ruled by the cruel Czar Nicholas II. Like the United States, the Russian Empire was a big prison of oppressed. rialism.1 Russian Bolsheviks, however, envisioned their revolution as the first in a series of world proletarian revolutions. The Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin specifically insisted that without the success of proletarian revolutions in Europe, the Russian Revolution and the Bolshevik regime would not be able to survive The Russian Revolution hastened the end of imperialism. Russia after the revolution was the first country to openly support the cause of independence of all nations from foreign rule. Nationalism: The revolution awakened the peoples of Asia and Africa and infused a new spirit of nationalism in their fight for freedom from the European colonizers Volume 6: The Global Impacts of Russia's Great War and Revolution, Book 1: The Arc of Revolution, 1917-24. Alexander Marshall et al. (eds.) $44.95. 978--89357-432-1. xix + 570. 2019. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was quickly perceived by both contemporaries and subsequent scholars as not merely a domestic event within the Russian Empire.

Old NCERT World History Ch11: Russian Revolution, USS

The Russian Revolution dramatically changed Russia from an autocracy to a communist system of government. The Revolution started during World War I, and eventually the Soviet Union was formed. The Russian Revolution was, while a huge economic, social, and political change, the result of a number of different factors that built up over time, including [ The 1917 Russian revolution was not as many people suppose, one well organized even in which Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown. Lenin and the Bolsheviks took power. It was a series of event that took place during 1917, which entailed which separate revolutions in February and October (with a great deal of political wrangling in between) and which. fact, the Russian language of the aristocracy that made the greatest impact on the Russian literary language. German also plays an important role in the formation of scientific terminology and lexicon during the 18th and 19th centuries (Isačenko 1980: 135). Over the past 200 years, the Russian literary language (henceforth Contemporar

The Effects Of The Russian Revolution Politics Essa

Many Americans are under the delusion that the Russian Revolution was merely a revolution of industrial workers against a small but powerful group of capitalists. This misunderstanding is due to the fact that most people think it took place according to the predictions of the German socialist writer Karl Marx Updated January 16, 2020. In 1917 Russia was convulsed by two major seizures of power. The Tsars of Russia were replaced first in February by a pair of co-existing revolutionary governments, one mainly liberal, one socialist, but after a period of confusion, a fringe socialist group lead by Lenin seized power in October and produced the world. The Arc of Revolution, which is Book 1 in the RGWR volume The Global Impacts of Russia's Great War and Revolution, examines the reverberations of the Russian Revolution in the geographically contiguous imperial borderlands traditionally contested between Imperial Russia and its geopolitical rivals—the terrain stretching from Finland. The French Revolution of 1789 had a momentous impact on neighboring countries. The French Revolutionary armies during the 1790s and later under Napoleon invaded and controlled large parts of Europe. Together with invasion came various radical institutional changes. French invasion removed the legal and economi Petrograd (July 27, 1917), in Mark D. Steinberg, Voices of Revolution, 1917, doc. 58, pg. 388. 7 Price, Philips M, My Reminiscences of the Russian Revolution , Chapters 9 and 10 (1921) in Morgan Philips Price, Dispatches from the Revolution: Russia, 1916-18, pg. 89 8 Collins, D.N., A Note on the Numerical Strength of the Russian Red.

Introduction. The Russian Revolution and subsequent Civil War were two of the most cataclysmic events of the twentieth century. In reshaping the largest nation on earth, their aftershocks are felt a century later. Civil war emanated from the Revolution. The instigators of the Revolution, the Bolsheviks, acted in desperation, instating short. The Russian Revolution (1917-1918) The Russian Revolution took place in 1917 , during the final phase of World War I. It removed Russia from the war and brought about the transformation of the Russian Empire into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), replacing Russia's traditional monarchy with the world's first Communist state Russian Revolution, two revolutions in 1917, the first of which, in February (March, New Style), overthrew the imperial government and the second of which, in October (November), placed the Bolsheviks in power, leading to the creation of the Soviet Union. Learn more about the Russian Revolution in this article Russia and Iran are allies in Syria not out of mutual sympathy, but for pragmatic reasons. According to many reports, Iranian leaders—nota-bly including Qasem Soleimani, the head of the Al-Quds force of the Islamic Revolution Guard Corps (IRGC)—were instrumental in convinc-ing Vladimir Putin to send his air force to Syria and save Bashar al-As F or Eric Hobsbawm , the Russian Revolution - which occurred, as it happens, in the year of his birth - was the central event of the 20th century. Its practical impact on the world was 'far more profound and global' than that of the French Revolution a century earlier: for 'a mere thirty to forty years after Lenin's arrival at the Finland Station in Petrograd, one third of humanity.